Further Prototypes…

To get a better understanding of the problem space we summarized all our knowledge in small handouts. Each focused on one problem.

By doing this further questions came up. We discovered these questions by building small prototypes. After building up several CEPs we tried to get a better understanding of the technologies itself by creating iterative CFPs for the areas of AR and RFID.




Warehouse overview …

Do we capture all departments within a warehouse? We need more information… 😉

Ok, lets visualize our progress to talk about the state.

What are they doing, how are they doing and where are the problems, and how could we improve the productivity?


CFP – Critical Functional Prototype

Critical Functional Prototype

The goal of prototyping in ME310a is to ‚answer questions‘ that will guide future design efforts.

Benchmarking and needfinding have given you a design knowledge foundation. Now it is time to try a design cycle that projects into the future of what could be. The challenging part is that you don’t yet know what to design or who the users are — it’s time to take an intelligent first guess.


Before you start planning and building, ask: „What is the question we’re trying to answer with this prototype?“ Write down the question and keep it handy so you don’t go off track. (Revise as needed.)

Critical Functional Prototype

This is all about discovering how to implement a critical product/service function that will be needed to deliver the experience. Some alumni feel that the Critical Function Prototype is the most memorable element of ME310 methodology.

The preparations for the CEP also apply here. But in comparison to the CEP, which is about establishing an experience, the focus here is to design and build a first prototype of a critical component that helps answer a non-obvious question. Create a physical thing or system that lets you explore some interesting part of the design space. Document it with the physical artifact (and potentially with CAD, drawings, code…).

CFP implementation

  • Draw upon results of your Critical Experience Prototype, as well as previous needfinding and benchmarking.
  • Identify functional requirements that would be critical to the success of your chosen design direction.
  • Like the CEP, it is an experiment. In the ideal case, you can get some quantitative data.
  • It is not „smoke and mirrors;“ it is about real stuff doing its thing. It is to explain HOW, whereas the CEP is to explain WHY.
  • You have limited time, so the prototype can be simple – don’t make it more elaborate than necessary to answer your questions.

Source: Stanford wiki

Company visit @Bechtle


This week we visited Bechtle in Neckarsulm. Bechtle provides AR glasses for their workers and we were allowed to try them.


It was the first time our team used AR glasses and we gained a lot of new insights into working with AR glasses in a warehouse.

The visit was very informative, so thanks for this opportunity Bechtle!

CEP – Setup


Critical Experience Prototype – chosen Driving Question

How do people best receive instructions?

  • What is the best source for receiving instructions?
  • How does it feel to get commands from different sources?

We chose to focus on how a potential user best receives instructions from an assistive device. Fundamental to this project is understanding the experience of future users and  how they interact with assistive technologies. The modes of interaction explored were video, written messages, and audio. These ubiquitous, basic modes of interaction are highly intuitive, and capable of conveying large amounts of information in a short period of time.

Setup of experiment

In order to test the best method for a user to receive information, we decided to use a controlled environment for our tests. Therefore we used two identically, prepared apartments with the instructor in one and the subject in the other. The instructor (located in apartment A) relayed information to the subject through a handheld mobile device while, simultaneously, the subject’s (located in apartment B) point of view was streamed to the instructor. This allowed the instructor to lead the subject through a series of tasks via Facetime, while checking the subject’s current status and providing new instructions.

During the experiment we tested audio, visual and text-based instructions.

Video – Setup

In order to test the subjects response to visual input, the instructor filmed his own view as he walked around and completed each task. The subject repeats the tasks based on this streamed perspective.

Audio – Setup

In order to test the subjects response to auditory input the visual information was blocked and only audio was sent. The instructor still receives the subject’s point of view.

Text – Setup

In order to test the subjects response to text-based input both the audio and visual inputs were blocked, with the subject only receiving instruction via Whatsapp text messages.

CEP Critical Experience Prototype

What is a Critical Experience Prototype (CEP)?

A Critical Experience is one that will be imperative while using our product. This experience needs to be replicated before the design process begins to see how people will react in that scenario. The purpose of the CEP is to create that experience at a fundamental level and gather insight as to how people feel in that design space.


  • The Critical Experience Prototype involves putting together an Experience that helps you to answer an important question about your users and how they might respond to some aspect or element of a design.
  • To do this, you need to make some initial guesses about Who your users might be and What might work for them.
  • Ideally, test your CEP on people who are representative of your users.
  • Keep good records of what you did, why you did it and what you learned from doing it.

This experience prototype is not a prototype for a product but explores one possible direction. The CEP should be presented using the actual experience if possible, or else through video, storyboard, process flow diagrams, and so forth.

  • Say what is critical and why — give the rationale for your choice.
  • Tell us what question you were trying to answer with your prototype.
  • Talk about who your users are – in the form of a user persona.

source: Stanford wiki



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